Conditions of the Economy

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Conditions of the economy  Society and values  The history of the economy begins with a never-ending debate. Plato, an ancient philosopher is the advantage of division of work out, because it allows people to register with the career choice of their natural abilities in mind. This seems to us today trivial and the view would certainly be in the moth case of economic theories disappeared when another large head, Adam Smith, not hervorgeholt and a critique would have undergone. Smith lived in the 18th Century and saw things exactly the other way round. He claimed that all people are inherently equal and just the division of labour brings their specific qualifications.  A contemporary of Plato, Aristotle, brought an important contribution to the economic consideration. He not only coined the word "Oikonomia" the rules of the home economics (satisfaction of needs) describes, but also the less well-known concept of "Chremastia", which the rules of the exchange.  Consequently, a "Oikos" a good use in two ways - "You can use a shoe to him, but also to replace him, both are uses a single shoe." Aristotle, so that the important distinction between the Utility value and the exchange value.  From the rules of the household economy was the doctrine of the goods in the broader sense. From the rules of the exchange, the money economy in the broader sense.  PPT framework Oikonomia  An economically acting Oikos (Bauer) recognizes the principles of division of labour and a second can of Oikos (craftsmen) finished the shoes. It also divided the work and its specialized activities. Everyone should do what he supposedly best. Up to this, it was simple and reflects all the basic principles of Oikonomia. On this model, with two poles, you can even have the basic rules of the exchange discuss. In the model can even money. And you can see approaches to an important branch of economics, the coordination and the attendant services share of the economy.  Take several farmers and artisans to participate in what's happening, new relationships and economic discharges. The Artisan is economically wise if it is not only a farmer produces his shoes, but for several. In the constellation realized in his production economies of scale. They can for quantity increases constant, or to decline. This results in different trends in value added. Furthermore, it is a measure of the effectiveness of its technology and skills in implementing its economic value.    The farmer selects the goods between several suppliers. We speak now of goods and goods are in the economic sense both yes? Products as well as benefits. Both are needed to join a benefit to donate or, as in economics is called? a need to satisfy. This is a fundamental principle of economic considerations. Every good, or any combination of goods, is a benefit to provide any interested .. In economic terms, the benefits to promise that the specific goods exchanged for cash.  Our world is full of goods, strictly speaking, there is a whole world of goods. The value of goods is usually easy to recognize - not the value. The value is a key provision, a fundamental result of economic considerations.  Between  The moon belongs to ev'ryone The best things in life are free. Words: B. G. DeSylva  and  Diamonds! Diamonds! I do not mean rhinestones! But diamonds are a girl's best friend.  Words: Jule Styne  plays every discussion about the value of goods. Obviously there are a lot of goods, and should even the best things in life are that do not cost anything - and still benefit.  This brings us pretty directly to the question of how a benefit from the combination of products and services. You can demand the final analysis good, or an intermediate product (- good), for the analysis was no great difference. We will come back to this point. At this point, only this: The production of goods is depending on the detour a more or less complex combination of products and coordination (services).  In this lecture we start first with the products. Without products there is no economic activity. There is useless products, but this assessment is on the individual and / or societal values dependent. Here, too, has changed since the days of classical antiquity, not much has changed. It is still in the production of goods and the identification of their market value.  PPT framework Slide 1  Products and ideas do not fall from the sky. There is no demand for computers, in the nature of man. Read the old works, the Bible, the Upanischaden or the Dao De Jing - they are nowhere a reference to a machine for information processing. Nevertheless, there is the machine now than an application of basic techniques, such as electric cable, signal transmission, information theory, mathematical, laser technology (indirectly theory of relativity) and organic chemistry.  We are working us about the technology, in particular the fundamental basis of the products to the science. The relatively simple question of economics and their bases before making any area of our culture and our society halt. The simple questions are once again, which is no easy answer.  What goods are produced? What benefit donate the goods? Who determines the composition of the goods?  In the lecture, we will learn some conditions and to learn for the economic development derived.  PPT framework Slide 2  Each cultural section affects the economy. Partly, the wide bases of an economy in science and technology. The Western is in our society from the knowledge of researchers ahead. A basic development at the initiative of the economy is not yet known.  You can see the overview on the layout of the issues that we deal with in the lecture. We will each pick a specific part, of particular interest and - if possible - easy to understand.  The goods and the demand for goods are determined by the company, with the possibilities the technology offers and ethics, the value system of society, the use of technical possibilities and the prices of goods.  Let the terms society, science (technology), values and economy in relation to each other once. At the Summit of the values enthroned the economy.  PPT framework Slide 3  In the economic consideration, while the freight, which is a value. But there is not a small amount "werthaltiger" goods that are not in the established statistics and accounting records of the economy.  In order to develop our economy to understand both the past, such as the future, give us a glimpse into the foundations of our Western society. Are we beyond even the contribution of science, especially science to the development of the economy provides.  PPT slide framework 3-6  That was the rough overview. This bird's-eye view, we want to at some point to life. And we will start at the base of the society, the values at the World images.  What brings us the insights and for the benefits?  We shape our world view and get a feel for the causes and effects of social and economic developments. We have a position and attitude to the world pictures of other cultures. This prepares the ground for the assessment of global developments. You learn to gauge future developments, because the actual, realized technology follows the potential in the natural sciences developments justified only by many years. With some basics from our world view is prepared to discuss it, in addition to economic values and other topics in the social context to content.  Our society is looking for alternatives, because the chosen path shows already started to wear. In order to find alternatives, we need the power of creative and a clear sight of the advantages and disadvantages of the current system.  What run the world view of our society back - both in time, as well as content?  PPT world views bases slide 1  Let us first consider the origins of reductionism as unshakeable basis of the philosophy of the Occident. For the purposes of Immanuel Kant is the metaphysics today's materialistic science. Its origins thanks to the ideas of the ancient Greeks, especially the Parmenides (ca. 530-470 BC) and his teacher, Xenophanes (ca. 570-485 BC). For it was a mixture of water and soil of the basic component of all entities. That seems no longer a viable explanation in the context of our way of thinking to atomistic. We believe since the discoveries of modern physics, that the world from other smallest particles, namely the quarks or Rischonen.  From the idea of the old school building after Parmenides is the essence, the foundation for the further insights of science and culture. The basic message is: There is a principle for everything Seiende and man can discover (reductionism).  From the school of thought of Parmenides, we have the reduction. This seems to us today because it is the essence of our culture. Indeed, the reduction of all dominant principle of our science. We even go so far, not a reductionist approach, as the mystic, extrasensory perception, and the rank of astrology a science whatever.  From the ideas of the ancient Greeks is for our modern science failed, that there is a principle there that we and the world on any principle can reduce.  The opposite assumption is approximately the same time. It is about: There is no principle for everything Seiende. Nothing is repeating itself. In the modern use of language that means: The world consists of singularities. The best known representative of this thinking in Greece was Heraclitus (circa 544-483 BC.). From him comes the quote: "It is impossible to twice in the same river to rise."  But how does that fit with the world of human experience? Many cultures and many world views based on that the cycle of nature, the repetition factor, the eternal and ceasing to be the fundamental and genetically anchored experience of the people. How can the opposite also true?  The opposite of the man seen as a singularity of history, not repeatable, as a forward arrow time, no exact repetition produces. There is only one big bang (if it was) just a storming of the Bastille, only one Albert Einstein and only a personal life. Everything is gone, everything goes, there are no similarities, no classifications, no reduction on basic principles.  There were very high cultures outside of our country evening, on another, equally consistent world view was justified. The Aztecs had a very advanced culture and knowledge many of our modern science has found. They had no idea of a basic principle, but their experience lined up together like pearls on a string. The same applies to the Baylonier. They had in their mathematics axioms or no evidence, but switched their knowledge of example tasks. The list ranks in the history planlos kings and events together.  PPT world views bases Slide 2  The North American Indians lived in harmony with nature. They had no written language and still a closed world. Your Mother Nature has been dominated by gods, which monitored compliance with rules. They were responsible for the cohesion of nature. Her image in the world based on the discomfort, not of being, they saw the world dynamic, not static following principles. There was no generally applicable, for all eternity continuing separate principle according to which the world worked. The sense of the world as a whole and the individual observed phenomena secured the gods.  Around the time of Heraclitus also formulated Lao Tse (about 604-510) his view of the world. His view of things is called Taoism and Confucianism in addition an important school of thought in China. His findings, the high culture of the East no doubt encouraged, although not even for the concept of the Tao a clear definition can be found. This shows very clearly how little value was placed on structuring. The world split reality in the laws, structures or definitions, but stresses the wholeness all becoming. Even with this world view, the Chinese have a science operated according to their meaning, which significantly differs from the Western. From the findings were quite advanced and practical methods and techniques.  We have the two poles of being and of becoming outlined below. What is the now a true paradigm for the development of cultures, societies and the economies derived from it? We do not observe both lines? Or was it not rather from their own world view, what we model towards? Can the man ever a true picture of reality?  Plato says he can not. He has our way of perceiving in his allegory of the cave. Here we have a modern form of Hšhlengleichnisses.  PPT world views bases Slide 3  The man is not destined to be a true picture of reality. The following unit to the historical pillars of the economy, we will formulate more precisely this finding, arguing with examples and evidence.